Contents (PVS)

1. Introduction
2. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopy in bioptical art
3. Bioptical effects, definitions
4. Bioptical means for psychotherapy
5. Laboratory hall for visual therapy
6. Aspects relative to the applications of plastic arts in psychotherapy
7. Psychodrom
8. About interpretations or exegeses by means of bioptics
9. About a didactic experiment in bioptical art
10. Space - time - colour
11. Contributions
12. Visual-sense-storming
13. Visual binarity
14. Some additions and resumptions on the bioptical composition
15. Psychical satiety in affectivity

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Bioptical means for psychotherapy

The Paired off Visual Signal   Liviu Iliescu

Figure 4.1 shows viewing with the naked eye when the composition fields are placed on a horizontal line. Following practice, three forms are noticed; bioptical effects appear in the middle form (vision with crossed eyes).
The vision with crossed eyes is a modality described by Marc Grossman and Rachel Cooper in the album Magic Eye (1995). Some subjects spontaneously see spatial (stereoscopic) effects, others require practising in order to acquire a habit. The procedure implies a higher psychophysical effort than in normal vision. The reason is the modification of the habit of correlated vision, between the convergence of the visual axes and adaptation.
Figure 4.2 shows a device with mirrors (bioptical device), mounted in a glasses'rim, for fields placed on a horizontal line or on a vertical. The use of the bioptical device substantially reduces the adaptation effort, which is an important asset for psychotherapy.
Figures 4.3 and 4.4 shows a bioptical device mounted on a stand which maintains the optical adjustment regardless of the observer`s height.


Fig. 4.1


Fig. 4.2


Fig. 4.3


Fig. 4.4

Figure 4.5, for the reasons mentioned in chapter 2, I have placed the composition fields (Fs) and (Fr) on a vertical. The device consisting of two mirrors, (G1) and (G2), placed like a periscope in front of the right eye, cast field (Fd) at the level of field (Fs), the field viewed with the left eye. The fusion tendency results in bioptical effects. The superimposition of the broken axis X-Y on the axis of the right eye Z-Z, results in the virtual extension Z`- Z , which, by correlation with axis W-W assures the convergence of the binocular vision.


Fig. 4.5

Figure 4.6 shows another way of observing bioptical reproductions, when fields are placed on a horizontal line. Bioptical effects may also be perceived by this modality. In this case, the space is reverted as compared to the vision with crossed eyes.
In order to separate the image provided by one eye from that provided by the other eye, a diaphragm is used, as in figure 4.6a. The position of the diaphragm is OK when each eye views only one of the rectangular forms (figure 4.6b) and both eyes see a single rectangular form, where elements standing out in space begin to be perceived.


Fig. 4.6


Fig. 4.7

Figure 4.7 shows a sketch for a bioptical sculpture
A tiered ensemble with paired off signs in bioptical correspondence, such as cuttings-out, outlines, prominences, as well as variously coloured surfaces. In addition to their tiered arrangement, forms also have a radial coordination, so that some inner surfaces provide coloured backgrounds for the cuttings-out of the other structures. The effects of standing out and floating are also obtained by breaking outlines with the help of prominences.
Sight A - main sight; Sight B - sight from above of the limits which circumscribe the forms in space.
D1, D2, D3 - observation directions to be preferred.
F1, F2, F3, F4 - support forms in space, including bioptical correspondents
a, a` - outlines in bioptical correspondence.
b, b` - succession of (cut out) triangles, correlated so as to obtain the reversal of the naturalistic perspective.
c, c` - coloured surfaces or cuttings out which induce retinal rivalry.
d, d` - correlated prominences, to be detached from the ensemble.
f, f` - elements which break the outlines.
n - noncorrelated outline.


Fig. 4.8

Figure 4.8 shows a montage meant to obtain a tactile-visual space (where one can see both surface rugosities and forms in space at different distances).
1 - bioptical sculpture (as in figure 2.19); 2 - Frame placed on the wall to limit painted forms in bioptical correspondence; 3 - Bioptical device on a stand.
The observer sees how the forms that make up the sculpture start to float in a dilated space; some come towards the observer, others penetrate the wall and seem to pass through the frame beyond it; the forms painted on the wall are spatially inserted with the forms carved in space in front of the wall and beyond it. The psychic influence in this case is much more powerful than that of the cinematic mixing.The presence of objects which seem to change induce much more powerful experiences than filmed scenes. The experience of viewing Jupiter's satellites through a telescope differs from that of seeing them on the TV screen. People would buy special glasses to view an eclipse of the sun, though it may be better seen on the TV screen.
Figure 4.9 eprovides an example of bioptical painting, created as an exercise for stimulated abstractization (from [11]).


Fig. 4.9 L. Iliescu, Study C, oil on cardboard, 65x90 cm


Fig. 4.10 Detail of figure 4.9